From the depths как сделать двигатель - Авто Сфера №76

Авто Сфера №76
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From the depths как сделать двигатель

Boeing 777 grounding explained visually: Pratt and Whitney engine failure involved in two incidents on same day

Air safety officials are focusing on engine fan blades in their investigation of what caused a massive engine failure aboard a Boeing 777-222 commercial airliner Saturday, strewing huge aircraft parts across neighborhoods in suburban Denver.

This engine failure may be related to several others stretching back for years, but first let’s review the details of the most recent event.

United Airlines Flight 328, bound for Honolulu, reported right engine failure shortly after leaving Denver International Airport at 12:49 p.m. The engine caught fire and began to disintegrate as passengers recorded and photographed the failing engine in flight.

Chad Schnell was among the passengers with a view of the damaged and burning engine. This is what he saw outside the window:

Some of the missing engine pieces ended up in someone’s front lawn in Broomfield, Colorado.

Here is a scale comparison to put that in perspective:

The aircraft, with 231 passengers and 10 crew, returned to Denver and landed safely shortly after takeoff. Fortunately, no one was injured.

From the depths как сделать двигатель

Sketch Engine is the ultimate tool to explore how language works. Its algorithms analyze authentic texts of billions of words (text corpora) to identify instantly what is typical in language and what is rare, unusual or emerging usage. It is also designed for text analysis or text mining applications.

Sketch Engine is used by linguists, lexicographers, translators, students and teachers. It is a first choice solution for publishers, universities, translation agencies and national language institutes throughout the world.

Sketch Engine contains 500 ready-to-use corpora in 90+ languages, each having a size of up to 50 billion words to provide a truly representative sample of language.

Linguists and Lexicographers

Sketch Engine processes texts of billions of words and, within seconds, finds instances of the word, phrase or phenomenon and presents the results in the form of Word Sketches, concordances or word lists.


Aligned parallel corpora are a source of translation suggestions as produced by real translators. Word Sketches help identify idiomatically correct word combinations and help use words like native speakers do.


Sketch Engine’s next generation term extraction and bilingual term extraction combine statistics and linguistic analysis to yield unprecedented quality. Extracted terms require very little manual cleaning or post-processing, if any at all.

Text analysis

Perform co-occurrence analysis, term extraction or generate frequency lists which take advantage of morphological analysis and part-of-speech tagging.

Product naming

Get ideas for product names and check the feelings and ideas they invoke. Check how such words are used by your competitors.

Teachers and Students

Word Sketch and concordance are the ideal tools to quickly understand how a word or phrase is used in context. Or try SkELL!


Time annotation in diachronic corpora together with Sketch Engine’s trends feature detects neologisms and trending words in seconds.


Language corpora, multi-billion word collections of texts, provide source data for all features of Sketch Engine. Our corpora are tagged and annotated to be ready for complex searches of phrases and language structures. Parallel and multilingual corpora are also available.

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Word Sketch ∎ Word Sketch difference ∎ Bilingual Word Sketch ∎ Word lists ∎ Thesaurus ∎ Term extraction ∎ Concordancer ∎ Trends ∎ Corpus Architect ∎ n-grams ∎ CQL ∎ WebBootCaT ∎ CAT integration ∎ Tick Box Lexicography

Languages and scripts

Sketch Engine currently works with more than 90 languages and over 30 writing systems (Latin, Cyrillic, Chinese, Thai…) including RTL scripts such as Arabic.

If you have a professional interest in words and meaning – as a teacher, a student, a language engineer, or a linguistic theorist – you need Sketch Engine. This is because words in isolation are hopelessly ambiguous. Only in context do words have a clear meaning. The genius of Sketch Engine is that it shows how prototypical collocations affect meaning. For example, “blowing up a bridge” has a quite different meaning from “blowing up a balloon”.

Even more different are “blowing your nose” and “blowing a whistle”. Similar examples could be cited in many other languages. In my work on verb patterns and lexical semantics, meanings are arranged in patterns around prototypical collocations. I could not do this work without Sketch Engine.

Why should translators bother with corpora, when there are so many other resources and technologies available? Well, corpora can help us address questions that are not covered in dictionaries, termbases, translation memories, the Wikipedia, Google, Linguee, translators’ forums, and so on. The beauty of Sketch Engine is that with one single tool you can look up answers to all sorts of questions in many different languages. In the same way as CAT tools are like an enhanced text editor that has been adapted to the needs of translators, think of Sketch Engine as a kind of tweaked search engine that has been customized for linguistic analysis, helping you get unprecedented access to how language is really used.

When I speak to other people about Sketch Engine, they are impressed by how easy Sketch Engine is to use. Much easier than they had feared. One presentation, a demo and a supervised exercise is all I have ever done and yet the participants rarely needed my support after the session.

Recording GPU Trace Data

Trace is a structured logging framework that is used for tracing instrumentation events from a running process. Insights contain default presets (-trace=default) to automatically track information about the CPU, Frame, Logs, and Bookmarks which can help you identify additional areas in need of optimization.

To track your project’s GPU trace data, launch your project (in Standalone or in a Packaged Build) using the command line argument.

-trace= default, gpu

Alternatively, navigate to your console’s command window by pressing the tilde (

) key and typing in the command

Hidden layers and training

The goal of the network is to build an evaluation function which is a combination of the neurons from the different layers separated by non-linearities. This evaluation function will be optimized (training phase) in respect to the weight of its neurons, in order to output the most accurate evaluation when given known chess games.

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The basic idea for NNUE’s training is to build a huge input dataset of randomly generated positions which are evaluated at a low depth with classical Stockfish. The network is trained using this dataset, and can be then fine-tuned using specific positions and evaluations. In itself, the network is simple as it is made of 3 fully connected layers plus an output layer which can be expressed as material score.

However, what makes NNUE really unique are both its input encoding and its incremental calculation optimized for CPU evaluation.

Drop Tube

Drop tube sampling is synonymous with used oil analysis. Unfortunately, many inconsistencies and fundamental flaws have been associated with this method. Drop-tube vacuum sampling is a simple, low-cost solution to procuring a sample for oil analysis.

However, many factors should be considered before using this method. For instance, to draw a sample the machine must be opened, therefore the oil is exposed to the environment. Opening a machine potentially allows airborne contamination to enter the oil and cause damage.

The key to an effective oil analysis program is the ability to draw an oil sample from a specific location while the machine is in operation and under normal load. Unfortunately, using the drop tube method while the system is running poses several concerns.

For instance, the plastic tubing may be pulled into the system resulting in safety concerns for the individual collecting the sample. This method also requires a large fluid flushing volume; has difficulties in obtaining consistent samples from the same location; and has problems with sampling high-viscosity fluids. In other words, this method of sampling should be avoided whenever possible.

Theoretically, when using this method in conjunction with a dipstick tube, the location will always be in the same general vicinity. The existing variable is the depth that the tube is inserted into the volume of oil in the sump.

To help address the issue of tube depth, a premeasured or graduated sample tube should be inserted to a known depth, which will narrow down the termination point of the tube to a reasonable area of variable location.

Figure 2. Sample Tube in Crank Case Dipstick

Types of Marine Batteries

There are three basic types of marine batteries:

  • Marine Starting Batteries provide quick but powerful spurts of energy over short periods of time and are designed to start the engine and be rapidly recharged by the engine alternator. A starting battery should not be used for trolling motors or powering appliances.
  • Marine Deep Cycle Batteries are designed to discharge slowly over a long period of time and to withstand several hundred charging and discharging cycles. A deep cycle battery is the right choice for powering an electric trolling motor and other battery-powered accessories such as audio systems, a windlass, depth finders, fish locators, and applicances. Deep cycle batteries should not be substituted for starting batteries.
  • Marine Dual-Purpose Batteries combine the performance of starting and deep cycle battery, and are a good choice on smaller when there’s no room for two batteries. While they’re able to perform the tasks of a starting battery and deep cycle battery, they’re not as efficient as separate batteries.
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Deep Cycle vs. Cranking

If you have an electric trolling motor, thruster, windlass, or other battery powered accessories that draw larger amounts of current, you’ll want a separate deep cycle “house” battery for that purpose. A deep cycle battery is only meant to be used where high rates of discharging and re-charging occur often. A deep cycle battery is constructed differently than a cranking battery, with thicker, heavier plates. The longer, higher amperage requirements of trolling motors and windlasses, for example, would heat and distort the thinner plates of a normal cranking battery.

The cranking battery has more yet thinner plates to give a fast voltage spike to crank an engine, but is not intended to maintain high power output for long periods. Yes, a deep cycle battery can be used to start your motor in a pinch, but a two- or three-battery system is highly recommended to separate the engine battery from the accessory (house) batteries.

The best way to be sure your battery is still good is to have it “load tested.” Most auto parts or battery specialty stores will load test your battery for free and tell you if it’s still serviceable. Just because it’s gone dead once or twice doesn’t necessarily mean it’s no good. The rest of your electrical and charging systems may need some attention as well, as something other than the battery itself may be the cause of the problem.

Checking your tyres

Your tyres are in constant contact with the road, so they’re understandably susceptible to wear and tear. Checking tyre pressure is a good habit to get into – keep them properly inflated and you’ll increase the lifespan of the tyres and get better performance from your car. Plus, properly-inflated tyres will mean your car is much safer on the road.

Investing in a reliable pressure gauge – like the Ring RTG4 or Draper 01071 – will mean you can monitor pressure levels and act if it’s too high or too low. A tread depth gauge is also a worthwhile investment – by law a tyre must have more than 1.6mm of tread depth across the central 75 per cent of its width. Sealey offers a good option that combines both pressure and tread depth gauges.

A flat tyre or puncture can be a real pain – cars will either come with a tyre repair kit or a spare wheel, and though you might want to be asking the professionals to take care of full change, for those thinking about doing it themselves we have a full guide here.

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